ПОД- СЕКЦИЯ 5. Социальная педагогика.


 Novikova O. J.

Kharkiv State Academy of Art



According to the UNO, the number of representatives of elderly group of the population in our planet has grown in 5 times since 1950. The social situation in the modern world, the orientation on youth, on the active lifestyle, the philosophy of achievements makes this demographic layer more vulnerable, and it fully concerns Ukraine as well. The data of the demographic forecast witnesses the constant growth of the number of aged people in the general structure of Ukraine’s population. Nowadays every fifth inhabitant of our state (20,4 %) has reached the age of 60. The number of people of 65 years old and older, which in 1994 was 14%, will increase up to 21% in 2025.    

Lately the topic of aging of Ukraine’s population, of social problems of aged people has been clearly defined by official authorities, scientists, public and media. At the level of official ideology the concept of ensuring the conditions of prosperous life is not adopted according to the principle of “calm survival”, but on basis of complete participation of elderly people in the society’s life through their abilities and wish. In the same time the modern attitude toward aged people as socio-demographic group of the population which is capable of actively influence the course of socio-economic development, has not been formed yet, including the problem of social adaptation of aged people in the modern Ukrainian society which stays unsolved.

Many scientific works are dedicated to the problems of elderly people – these are works by I. Bondarenko, A. Zavada, T. Martsynovska, N. Uskova,  E. Holostova, R. Yatsemirska and others. The problems of the situation with aged people in stationary institutions of social service occupy the special place in the scientific research. V. Boltenko, V. Katuhin, T. Kolenichenko, E. Podnebesna,  V. Polianicko, H. Porseva, N. Sekareva, A. Tysetska, I. Fokin and others have dedicated their works to this topic. In the same time there are no complex scientific works on the research of socio-pedagogic adaptation of elderly people in the conditions of information society, insufficient attention is paid to the organization of socio-pedagogic work with this category of representatives of aged group in stationary institutions of social service. In 2012 the network of stationary institutions in Ukraine included 320 nursing homes, 86 of which are meant for aged people and disabled ones, 25 boarding houses for war and work veterans, 7 special nursing homes for aged people where 20 000 elderly and disabled people, 7 000 war veterans and 5 000 work veterans live permanently.                                                                                                               Let’s define the essence and the content of socio-pedagogic adaptation of aged people as socio-pedagogic work of social adaptation with elderly people directed to the active mutual adaptation and mutual habitation of aged people to the conditions of social environment; harmonious entering into the system of social relations; mastering of various social roles; accomplishment of socio-valuable activity without long-term internal and external conflicts; the development of adaptive needs and possibilities; orientation on further development, self perfection and self identification.     While characterizing the socio-pedagogic adaptation as a process, researchers mark out such components as “adaptive environment” and “adapting element” (in other words, in our case these are people who are under stationary institutions’ charge). Let’s believe that the adaptive environment for the inhabitants of stationary institutions of social service is the following one:                                                                                                                                                  1.Socio-contact part of society:  

  - the institution itself and its staff, that the inhabitant has to interact with;                                               

    - the group of housing home inhabitants (inhabitant’s environment): culture, experience, lifestyle, activity, behavior, relations (cooperation, mutual aid, mutual dependence)                                                                                                                             - the staff structure – presence of leaders, neglected people, real place of a particular person in the staff or group structure), level of inhabitant’s protection in the team.                                                                                                                                2. The information part of the environment:                                                             

- the rule of internal order, status:                                                                                        

  - the acquirement of skills of independent activity, the organization of the activity;          

 - the traditions which were established in the institution, norms of behavior, attitude toward other inhabitants etc.                                                                                  

  - requirements, orders, advice, assignments, messages etc.                                                

 - kinds of activity that inhabitants have to master.                                                               

    3. The subject part of the environment: material living conditions and everyday life.                                                                                                                                                    The studies of scientific works by I. Boltenko, N. Kolenichenko, N. Porseva and others have allowed marking out the main directions of the activity of stationary institutions for aged people, namely: carrying out necessary medical preventive assistance to maintain the health of chronically ill inhabitants; providing social aid to the inhabitants with instate standards of social ensuring for aged people; encouraging social adaptation, gaining positive social experience etc.                                                                                                  

   In 2012 in Kharkiv region the monitoring of the activity of stationary institutions of social service of aged people was carried out and it allowed to identify the obsolescence of normative-legal documents which regulate the activity of mentioned institutions; the limitation of adaptive, rehabilitative and socialized programs; the territorial and information isolation of the institutions; the lack of staff and its insufficient qualification; the limitation of charged people in the communication with people of other sex; the lack of the possibility of the integration of people who are under stationary institutions’ charge into society.                 

 For the creation of the model of socio-pedagogic adaptation of aged people in stationary institutions of social service and more detailed consideration of the research object, namely the process of social adaptation of elderly people we have to define what we understand as modeling of pedagogic processes. The main notion of the modeling method is the model – artificially created object such as schemes, constructions, signs and formula which is similar to the studied object, reflects and reproduces the structure, peculiarities, interconnection between the elements of the object. The model gives the possibility to plan the process, in this case socio-pedagogic adaptation of elderly people. The main components of the model of socio-pedagogic adaptation of aged people in stationary institutions of social service are divided into specific, organizational and evaluating. The organizational component supposes the creation of conditions to increase the efficiency of socio-pedagogic adaptation of elderly people, namely: the activation of the adapted environment, the systematization of socio-pedagogic work with aged people including the combination of medical rehabilitative, social and socio pedagogic work, the creation of information enlightening space in stationary institutions of social service.                                                                                             

 In our further research we will define the criteria and signs of socio-pedagogic adaptation of aged people.