Nalyotova N. Yu.

candidate of pedagogical sciences, assistant professor

                                                                                          Kuzmenkova T.L. 

                                                                  candidate of philosophical sciences

Smolensk branch of the Moscow state university of means of communication





Any attempt to imagine the Russian civilization, culture and Russian education inseparably linked with them in the form of the complete historically continuous developing phenomenon possessing the invariable logic and the expressed national originality, encounters big internal contradictions.

By consideration of the separate facts from history of Russian education we see that at any stage of the formation and historical development education is transformed, on impact of influence of various cultures. It as though forks, showing, at the same time two excellent from each other persons: European and Asian, spontaneous and organized, spiritual and secular, collective and individual.

Similar stable discrepancy of Russian education generates on the one hand, the increased dynamism of its self-development, on the other hand periodically becoming aggravated conflictness which is called as binarity.

 Not casually through all history of Russia pass binary frames, organizing as a whole domestic education as a through dichotomy: kind angrily, dvoyevery, heresies, split, a raznochinstvo, an evraziystvo, Russian communism, Post-Soviet reality – in each of these concepts, semantic ambivalence, a dvusostavnost, internal dramatic nature is put.

It should be noted that all frames of which it develops whole Russian education, are interfaced among themselves by a "vzaimoupor" principle: religion science, Orthodoxy autocracy, the intellectuals – the people, history present, Russian idea - communistic idea и.т.д. For example, Orthodoxy, being long time a semantic dominant of Russian education, at different stages always an antithesis to a latinofilstvo, a grekofilstvo, a sekulyarizm, spread autocracy.

Having analysed deep sense, the binary phenomena revealed already at an early stage of national development, we come to a conclusion that behind each of frames in Russian history there is in an implitsitny form a primary cultural dichotomy of the West and the East. A dichotomy symbolizing participation of the Russian civilization both to those, and to another, and its claims on basic universality, an inclusiveness, universal scale.

But this participation of Russia in "vseedinstvo" of the world isn't unequivocal neither in national and civilizational, nor in cosmopolitan sense. Russia and it is unlike  in relation to the world (acting, as «the third force», along with the West and the East according to V. Solovyev), and at the same time includes all mankind («the world responsiveness» according to F.Dostoevsky). In the mental bases Russia, "is built directly in" world human community with all sociocultural variety inherent in it, showing a sample of «blossoming complexity» (according to K.Leontyev). Thereby, it appears isomorphic to volume world whole which more simple sum of east and western beginnings and in this regard  develops of the East and the West and at the same time on sense and the western beginnings and in this regard represents «a vseedinstvo of contrasts».

It is not surprising that reflecting on own education, domestic thinkers - educators were always inclined to see in it or a phenomenon of world-wide and historical scale and the value, capable to open new ways for all mankind, or emphasized exclusiveness of the Russian educational experience consisting in «amazing loss of Russia from traditions as West, and East» [2, p. 117].

The set of similar reflective displays of Russian education testifies that it constantly correlates itself to world educational space (or, at least, with European). It enters with it the various dialogical relations (a consent, disputes, imitation, and confrontations) are compared by world experience with the context and destiny.

Thus, it is possible to tell that in the territory of Russia-Russia during more than the millennia are developed some kind of «the turbulent sociocultural processes of world-wide and historical scale which are inevitably bearing on the press at the same time to an innovatsionnost and accident» [1, p. 34].

Actually each new educational paradigm in the Russian history was marked by processes which reconsidered, denied the achievements begun within an old paradigm. For example, the rupture of education began with educational experience of the Western Russia (Kiyevo-Mogilyansky academy) in Russia with Old Russian educational traditions. The Petrovsky revolution defined as execution to Russia of ready western culture, being in a shouting contradiction with traditions of orthodox culture stored in the people, caused rapid development of two types of erudition – "church" and "secular" which till this day develop separately from each other. The Stalin Union in many respects reanimated educational ideology of the Russian Empire, apparently, finally buried by Lenin and his colleagues. Humanity of the Soviet pedagogics was suddenly replaced by the "barbarous" market of educational services.

However, as the history of Russian education old shows, never completely disappeared, but in the stablest forms - traditions continued languid "drift", along with formation of the new. At the same time new never forced out up to the end old though for it, apparently, applied. Old and new not so much replaced each other, how many went in parallel each other, being imposed at each other and sometimes doing the coexistence paradoxical and internally tragic. The phenomenon of Russian education is based on this sociocultural mechanism.

 From told it is possible to draw a conclusion that binarity is not simply temporary period, but the testimony of konstitutivny properties inherent in the most Russian civilization, with its, as we know, primary infinity, width, ability to contain in itself absolutely mutually exclusive extremes, with its readiness to move either in one, or in the opposite party – without.

          From here and the well-known unpredictability of Russian education, and its not less appreciable repeatability - the properties which are showing in unprecedented in comparison with other countries and the people scales.


1. Kondakov I.V. Russian culture: short sketch of history and theory: the manual for students of higher education institutions / I.V. Kodnakov. – the 2nd edition corrected – M: Book house "University", 2000. – 360 pages.

2. Rozanov V.V. Sumerki's of education / V.Rozanov. – M: Pedagogics, 1990. – 621 pages.