Education: the essence and types


ПОД- СЕКЦИЯ 1. Воспитание и образование

Panchak H.I.

Drohobych State Teacher Training University

named after Ivan Franko

Kulynyak I.Ya.

Lviv Polytechnic National University


Education: the essence and types


Education is a process of comprehensive human development, focused on the impact of objective and subjective factors in the formation of personality and willingness to labor, physical and psychological activities in the context of social interaction.

Pedagogical category of "education" is used in teaching science in four senses: in a broad social sense it is a developmental influence on human society as a whole and the whole reality, which has not only a positive direction. Reality contains conflicts and contradictions, here personality becomes not only a positive social experience, but also negative, in a broad pedagogical sense this is the educational activity of various education and educational systems that are guided by pedagogical theories, in a narrow pedagogical sense – the purposeful educational activities of the teacher to achieve certain educational goals, in an extremely narrow sense – solving by a teacher some specific individualized problems of education or re-education [6].

Education is a complicated and versatile process of identity formation, creation of the optimal conditions for their physical, mental and social development. Education of younger generation is one of the main tasks, to which the society gave great importance in different times. Yet K. Helvetia wrote that education can do everything. Taking into account the impact of natural environment, it aims to develop in each individual certain values​​, knowledge, skills, needs, traits, abilities and habits.

As a pedagogical category education has three essential characteristics: commitment, which requires a certain pattern, socio-cultural ideal, the correspondence of an educational process to the specific socio-cultural values​​, the presence of a system of organized educational influences; humanity, which provides guidance in education in human values​​, integrity, continuity and duration, that education should affect all areas of the human psyche, creatively shape and fully develop them throughout life. To implement these features the education should be comprehensive, systematic and organized [6].

Modern pedagogics offers the following classification of education [1-5]: civil, intellectual, moral, ecological, sexual, legal, labor, aesthetic, physical and political.

Under the civil education the formation of citizenship as an integrated personality, which enables a person to feel morally, socially, politically and legally viable and secure should be understood.

Mental education involves activities aimed at the development of intellectual effort and thinking to inoculate the culture of mental work.

Moral education means educational activities of schools, families with development of students' moral consciousness of the moral feelings, habits, skills, appropriate behavior.

Ecological education is represented by systematic teaching, aimed at development of human culture, interaction with nature.

Sexual education is the process of assimilation of the younger generation of knowledge about the relationship between the sexes, creating a culture of behavior and needs to be guided in dealing with persons of the opposite sex by some norms of morality.

Legal education provides educational activities of the family, schools, law enforcement, aimed at the formation of legal consciousness and lawful behavior of children.

Labor education is interpreted as the formation of conscientious attitude to work by forming habits and skills of active employment.

Aesthetic education is an activity aimed at forming the ability to perceive and transform reality by the laws of beauty.

Physical education is understood as a system of measures to enhance human health, hardening our body, the development of physical abilities and motor skills.

Political education is a systematic purposeful impact on the consciousness, will and behavior. It is aimed at developing individual and group consciousness. It is performed in order to prepare citizens to public life, the formation of beliefs and behaviors appropriate to the dominant ideas of the society and the interests and the development of an active position regarding certain events and political life of the society.

In modern conditions, taking into account the fact of high school students visiting the site "Vkontakte" and giving the results of studies in which minimal time spent by underage users online is at least three hours, a need for pointing out an individual, social-network type of education of the schoolchildren.

Social networks will no doubt be attributed to one of the most important factors influencing the socio-psychological, moral, cultural, aesthetic and physical development of the modern schoolchildren.

Social-network education should be understood as a complex and versatile process of personality formation under the influence of both positive and negative factors caused by the stay of students in social networks and communication "online" in chat rooms and blogs. This concept reveals a number of factors that determine the positive and negative changes in the development and education of children.

Social networks play the increasing role in the development of the child as an individual and they acquire the development under the influence of informatization of the society. Positive aspects of implementation of innovative technologies of communication processes are compensated by the negative impact, so it is needed to more and more take into account the impact of social networks as a tool for education and formation of personality.

Education of a child is the main and primary task of parents. The purpose of the modern educational process is characterized by the harmony of social and individual goals, objectives and cooperation in achieving them. The process of education is multifactorial: it impacts on family, individual teachers, school as a whole, the whole society with its educational institutions.



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