THE ORETICAL MODEL OF PREPARATION RESEARCH SKILLS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS

 

Theory, practice and teaching methods. 

 

Cheltybashev A.A.

PhD in Pedagogy

assistant professor of technology,

business and economy

Murmansk, Russia,

MSHU

 

 

THE ORETICAL MODEL OF PREPARATION RESEARCH SKILLS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS 

Abstract

This article deals with the specific character of implementation of the model of research skills training in the educational process. The article describes main results of the conducted study on how the model was introduced in the educational process.

Keywords: model, research, problem tasks.

 

One of the requirements for training future specialists in the two-level system of higher education (bachelor - master) is to develop students’ scientific and research skills. For this purpose, it is necessary to have scientific and methodological apparatus which will create conditions under which this type of cognitive activity will become an integral component of the learning process. This fact led to the development of a model of research skills training in the process of teaching general engineering disciplines.

Problem of creation of pedagogical models can be found in many modern educational research works. The model which we develop should become a part of an integrated system of research skills development of future teachers of technology and entrepreneurship. Currently, for general technical disciplines, such models are not realized in pedagogical universities.

To create a model of a learning process we had to identify its main components. Analysis of the literature revealed three main components of the educational process. The result of training of any type of specialist mainly depends on the degree of validity of these components. They are:

-      goal of training (what’s the purpose of teaching);

-      content (what to teach);

-      principle of educational process (how to teach) [6].

The main principle lying in the basis of our model is the following: a modern specialist must possess not only a specific set of professional and methodological knowledge and skills, but also the technology of personal professional development on the basis of modern theories [1].

Positive effect on the results of scientific and research work of inner motivation of a person and his interest to work is often mentioned by researchers who studied various aspects of creativity (M.M. Zinovkina, A.M. Novikov and etc.) [5, 6]. The proposed pedagogical model of methodological training of future teachers of technology and entrepreneurship is also based on the ideas about structure of motivational sphere of a person, ways of development of inner motivation and cognitive interest of students. When developing pedagogical model, we took into account theoretical concept about the engineering mindset that is used to describe the process of nomination of different and equally valid ideas on the same subject or to solve the same problem [2, 5].

According to some researchers, students of many universities to a greater degree study disciplines of general engineering in a reproductive way. The learning process is not creative, students are taught to act according to the “model” when solving practical tasks [5, p.21]. When we studied systems of teaching general technical disciplines at Murmansk State Technical University, Pomor State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, St.-Petersburg University of Technology and Design, Petrozavodsk State University (Kola Branch), Karelian State Pedagogical Academy, we confirmed the above-mentioned idea of M.M. Zinovkina [5, p. 21].

The comparative analysis of basics of research methodology and technical knowledge, structure of research tools and methods allow us to develop a theoretical model of research skills training (Fig. 1).

 

Figure 1 A model of research skills training

This model includes the following interrelated components (blocks):

Regulatory, theoretical and methodological bases of training research skills (this block reflects the above-mentioned requirement for a modern teacher).

Goals, objectives, principles, content and conditions of research.

Description of technology of training research skills, which includes:

  • types of activities of students (laboratory works, practical classes, tests and course papers);
  • analysis of the initial level of preparedness of students to solve creative technical tasks (testing by Bennett to check level of development of technical thinking, analysis of solutions to the given creative tasks at the beginning of training);
  • technology of searching and solving problems (ARIZ, FSA, brainstorm, synectics, morphological analysis, etc.);
  • psychological and pedagogical conditions of effective research skills training (defining motives, developing interest to research, management of motives, encouraging students’ participation in research activities and readiness of teachers for this work);
  • methods of stimulating creativity (through additional evaluation of the results of various kinds of academic work);
  • monitoring level of research skills (integrated control system based on the solution of research tasks and tasks of varying complexity, definition of mastery of selected components of the above methodology, research foundations).

Each of the selected components is aimed at the development of research skills of future teachers of technology and entrepreneurship.

This pedagogical model was practically implemented in the learning process of Murmansk State Pedagogical University through specially designed tasks and assignments for laboratory and practical classes.

The implementation of this model when preparing future teachers of technology and entrepreneurship allowed not only to improve quality of knowledge in general engineering disciplines, but also to form research skills, which is proved by the results of this study.

The study has been carried out at Murmansk State Pedagogical University for 3 years. The participants of the study were students of two groups of the 2nd-4th year of study, specialty "Technology and entrepreneurship" TE-21 (22 people, experimental group) and TE-22 (21 people, control group).

Figure 2. Comparative results of solving two tasks in the experimental and control groups (data for 2009)

 

Analysis of the results of how tasks were solved shows that at the initial phase of the experiment there was a clear shift toward reproductive task solving, both in experimental and control groups.

 

 

Figure 3 Comparative results of solving three tasks in the experimental and control groups (data for 2010)

Analysis of the results of how tasks were solved, shows that during the year when the model was implemented in the learning process there was a greater shift toward searching task solutions in the experimental group, compared with the control group. In 2011 a final test was made which showed even greater shift toward search of solutions in the experimental group. In the control group, there was not any noticeable shift.

 

 

Figure 4 Comparative results of solving tasks in the experimental and control groups (data for 2011)

These results show that the implementation of this model of research skills training in education has a positive effect on the type of task solving. During the experiment at Murmansk State Humanities University in experimental group there was a significant shift toward obtaining task solutions. In the control group there was a shift only toward diverse solutions. This suggests that the experimental group experienced a rise in the level of research skills compared with the control group.

The results were indirectly confirmed by the self-study carried out as part of university certification at the Faculty of Art Education, Technology and Design. The grades in similar subjects – «Applied Mechanics» and «Technological discipline» – in the experimental group were 4.32 and 4,37 and in the control group – 3,95 and 3,8 respectively.

These results let us prove the effectiveness of the proposed model of research skills training, as well as to develop methodology of its implementation in the learning process on the basis of objectives and tasks of different complexity.

 

Literature

1. Altshuller, GS, Vertkin I.M. How to become a genius: The life strategy of the creative personality. - Minsk: Belarus, 1994. – 479 p.

2. Bespalko V.P. On the possibilities of a systematic approach to pedagogy / / Pedagogy. - 1990. - № 7. - P. 59-60.

3. Dolzhenko O.V, Shatunovskii V.L. Modern methods and technology of education in technical college: Methodical advice. - M.: High school, 1990. -191 p.

4. Druzhinin V.N. Psychology of general abilities - St. Petersburg: Peter Com, 1999. – 368 p. (Series "Masters of Psychology");

5. Zinovkina M.M. Creative engineering education. The theory of creative and innovative teaching technologies: Monograph. M., 2003.

6. Novikov A.M. The methodology of training. - M.: Publishing house "Egves", 2005. – 176 p.