THEORETICAL – METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF SPECIALIZED TERMINOLOGY OF THE RUSSIAN AND KAZAKH LANGUAGES ANALYSIS AND STUDY: EVOLUTION OF THE PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

 

ПОД – СЕКЦИЯ 5 Языковедение и иностранные языки.

 

 

Doctor of Philological Science,

 Professor Zhainagul S. Beisenova

Маster of pedagogic science Togzhan S. Toleuova

Kazakh University of the Humanities and Law, Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan

 

THEORETICAL – METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF SPECIALIZED TERMINOLOGY OF THE RUSSIAN AND KAZAKH LANGUAGES ANALYSIS AND STUDY: EVOLUTION OF THE PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

 

 

The trend to rapid increase of specialized vocabulary volume in context with the scientific and technological progress is not questioned. Social changes that cause radical reconstruction of the conceptual apparatus of many scientific disciplines and the emergence of new disciplines and new concepts significantly increase the need for the nomination. This leads to a massive emergence of new terms and the entire terminological systems, but also brings significant changes to existing terminological systems.

In lexicological studies the development and formation of specialized terminological systems play an important role. In 30s of the XX century, separated from linguistics and began to form a new applied scientific discipline that has as the object of study terms and terminological systems – terminology. Their historic contribution to the development of this discipline made such remarkable scholars as A. Baitursynov, K. Zhubanov, S. Kenesbayev, U. Aitbayev, V.V. Vinogradov, D.S. Lotte, G.O. Vinokur, A.A. Reformatsky, R.A. Budagov, O.C. Akhmanova that distinguished in their researches current trends in terms study such as nominative, normative and functional. Since then, the situation with the description of the terminology has changed. There are necessary theoretical publications (U. Aitbaev, B. Kaliev, S. Kurmanbayuly, V.S. Grinev, G.P.Melnikov, A.V. Superanskaya, V.M. Leychik) and theoretical journals on science of terminology: "Terminologichesky Vestnik", "Terminologiyalyk habarshy" [1, P.234-236].

At the present time we can speak about creating a general theory of terminology – one of the most important parts of the theory of general linguistics. Attention to scientific language terms is predetermined by progress of natural and technical sciences, sociology, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, art, culture, followed by the appearance of special words to denote the objects under study. Although this process occurs at different times in different parts of the world, this in itself is a universal phenomenon. It is reasonable to to believe that at the turn of the XX- XXI century in Russian and Kazakh languages ​​developed the terminology for almost all leading branches of science and technology. This is evidenced by a number of specialized russian-kazakh/kazakh-russian dictionaries, directories, scientific publications.

Terminology as a special area of ​​knowledge occurred shortly after the World War I (O. Vyuster, H. Fehlberg).

Historically, about aspects of the term study with statement of a question, as noted V.A. Tatarinov, in science began to speak since 1972, when there was institutionalization of science of terminology as an independent scientific discipline. The first scientific work on the systematization of aspects of terminological research in this sense (in the period of the Soviet Union) was a Ph.D. dissertation of V.A. Tatarinov. Theory of terminology, summarizing the experience of terminological science, promotes the development and improvement of terminological systems of individual disciplines, identifying those features which are peculiar to any term, and restricting them from features peculiar to non-term words. But despite the great differences in the specificity of subject knowledge of some areas of science and technology, serving their term systems have common features, as formed from the lexical material of the language spoken by the people creating this terminology.

Currently in the works on the study of terminological problems is shown that the terminology as a science emerged at the intersection of linguistics, logic, ontology, informatics and substantive sciences.

For the modern term creation in specialized terminology the main problem became the unification and standardization of terminology in different levels of its development and practical knowledge, the solution of such problems as the theory of the term and terminology, cognitive science of terminology, the terms in the vocabulary of languages ​​for special purposes, lexicography, terminology in professional activities, organization of scientific-terminological work. The main points of the solution to this problem is the creation of new terms, foreign-language terms translation into the native language, the selection of synonymous series and choice of the main term, the return of national terms to life in relation with the revival of national terminology in the CIS countries that emerged after the collapse of the USSR.

Kazakh scientists in interesting form solved linguistic and logical problems of the term, the actual correlation of the term and concept, applied questions in unification of terminologies, published monographs on linguistic, sociolinguistic aspects of terminology and terminography, collections of articles devoted to the problems and prospects of development of modern terminology in Kazakhstan (U. Aitbayev, A. Kaydarov, S. Sarybayev, R. Syzdykova, B. Kaliyev, S.Kurmanbayuly, K. Bukharbayeva, A. Zhumabekova, M. Evteeva, A.Bizhkenova, E. Abdrasilov, A. Azamatova, etc.) [2, P.12-15].

Summarizing the experience of individual researchers and schools, the search for common universal problems and their solutions are of considerable scientific interest. All of this is the range of problems of the theory of terminology. It also includes exploring possibilities of individual languages ​​to build terminological systems of scientific disciplines, the ratio of national and international elements in the special terminology, such as veterinary medicine, expediency of formation of their development towards their nationalization or internationalization. Typological science of terminology as a scientific discipline is justified in the work of S.G. Kazarina, where an attempt to describe the system of filiation processes in linguistics with view to preserving the subject of linguistics: linguistics – science of terminology – typological science of terminology. Comparison of terminological objects makes it possible to identify their typological properties in order to trace the formation of scientific modes of thought and realize the results obtained in the nomination activity. The important question is whether to start with a detailed study of the terminology of a particular industry or to create certain grid of characteristics, which can be used as a matrix for the terminological system. In specialized terminology such areas, as the study of specialized terminologies as the main component of the professional-sectoral language and place of specialized terminology in the structure of Linguistics in the approach to the term are scheduled. In Russian linguistics L.V. Ivina came to the study of specialized terminological system by the example of of venture lexicon of economic terms from the lingo-cognitive position. L.S. Rudinskaya identified current trends of hematologic terms. About the problems of computer terminology reflects Z.Tokebaeva-Bulanbaeva. Semantization of agricultural terminology is considered in works of A.K. Nurkasymova. On the pages of the periodical press, in mass media there is a tendency to variability in the translation of terms. This phenomenon has a negative impact on the establishment of industrial term system as a whole and complicates the work of specialists-translators [3, P.34-35].

Place of terminology are in comparative perspective in the Kazakh linguistics considered by S.A. Gontsova. Noteworthy are the studies of intra-and inter-terminology, scientist and linguist Z.I. Komarova, V.G. Kulpin. The wide interest in research terminology due to the increased role of terminology in the life of a modern society with its complex information structure.
In the terminology we have the conscious design of new words, which did not exist in any language, considerable space is given in general terms the logical problems. In this case, as a consequence, analyzes of language and logic of relations, and logical division of the research object in order to identify opportunities to use parallel language constructs to describe the same perceived and conceptualized the facts, phenomena, processes, evidence-based in the writings of the classical theory of the term A. Baitursynov. This idea is particularly interesting to analyze the associative nature of figurative thinking in terminology work For example, the Kazakh word «Seshek», known even in ancient as the "flower" in the twentieth century acquire terminological meaning of "disease name" (Seshek - pox). [4, P.12-15; 5, P.56-57].

One of the major provisions of the history of science - the difference of the subject and object of knowledge, science and discipline: "We must always remember - and in a methodological study of the provision is the main - that the object of knowledge is not identical with the object: it is a product of human cognitive activity, and, as a special the creation of mankind, is subject to special laws, the laws do not coincide with the object itself." [6, P.72-75].

Thus, the subject of the theory of terminology in the aggregate are: to study the formation and use of specific words with which marked the accumulated knowledge of mankind and to identify common features peculiar to them all, the search for optimal ways to create new terms and their systems, improvement of existing terminological, search for universal facts, common terminology for the different areas, summarizing the experience of individual researchers and schools.

 

 

Literature:

1.   Tatarinov V.A. Theory of terminology. - Moscow: Moscow High School, 1996. - S. Zharkynbekova Sh. K.  Conceptosphere as an object of cognitive analysis / / Russian language and literature in the twenty-first century: theoretical and applied aspects of the problem: 1 Materials Intl. Congress. - Moscow-Astana, 2007. - p. 87-92.

2.  Mukanov Z. A. Embedded foreign elements in the works of Chochan Valikhanov: Abstract ... Candidate thesis. Philology. Sciences. - Almaty, 2001. – p.27.

3.   Bizhkenova A.E. Linguistic basis of cognitive terminology - Astana, 2007. – p.79.

4.  Kulpina V.G. Linguistics of color: the color terms in the Polish and Russian. - Moscow High School,  2001. - p.8.

5.   Shedrovitsky G.P. Problems of systems research methodology. - M.: Knowledge, 1964. – p.48

6.  Golovin, B.N. Some problems and research topics of scientific and technical terminology / / Scientists recording. -  Gorky: published in Gorky Univ. - 1970. - Vol. 114. Linguistic. – p. 17-26.