Using interactive teaching methods in institutions of higher education.



ПОД- СЕКЦИЯ 3. Инновации в области образования.

Jacyk I.S.

doktor filozofii, docent katedry estetyki, etyki oraz sztuki

Żytomierski Państwowy Uniwersytet imienia Iwana Franki

Using interactive teaching methods in institutions of higher education

Teaching process in institution of higher education is not only automatic putting educational material to students' heads. Intensive mental work of the student, his activity statements, interpretation of the situation, also explaining are integral factors of better remembering and reproduction of information.

It is a well-known fact that students are nation elite. Consequently studying in universities should be methodically explained and perfectly worked-out, because the amount of material to absorb is huge. Scientists devote their life to one problem, and the teacher is given only a short lecture or seminar to highlight the problem.  Research conducted by the National training center (USA, state Maryland) is show that online learning allows dramatically increase the rate of learning, whereas affects not only on student consciousness but on his feelings and will (actions, practices) [9.2]. The results of these studies are reflected in the scheme, known as "training pyramid ".

Lection – 5 % of adoption.

Reading – 10%.ofadoption.

Video/audio materials – 20% of adoption.

Demonstration – 30% of adoption.

Discussion groups – 50% of adoption.

Practice throughout the work – 75% of adoption.

Teaching others / getting, using knowledge – 90% of adoption.

Looking on the pyramid you can see that theleast results can be achieved under passive learning (lection – 5 %, reading – 10%.), and the highest – interactive (discussion groups – 50%, practice throughout the work – 75%, teaching others/getting, using knowledge – 90%) [9,2].  It is of course the average fact and in specific cases results could be little bit other, but on average, this pattern can trace every teacher. Thisinformation is absolute agreed by the researches of the modern Russian pedagogues. According to their estimates, a senior student can read, remember 10% of information, listening to - 26%, considering - 30%, listening and looking - 50%,discussing - 70% -80% personal experiences, join activities with the discussion - 90%,other studies - 95% [6.78].

Ukrainian educators O.Pometun and L.Pyrozhenko show an interesting example of interactive teaching, who are pay our attention on the fact that our brain seems to belike a computer, and we are his users. For computer work we should switch it on. So similarly it is necessary to turn on student’s brain. When learning is passive, brain is not working.  Computer needed in right program software to interpret the information putted in its memory. Our brain must connect what we teach with that we know and how we think.  When studying is passive he does not deduce these connections and does not provide a complete learning.

Finally computer could not save the information if it not treated and "fixed" by a special team. The same with our brain, it should to correct the information, generalize an explained it to someone else for better saving it in memory. When teaching is passive brain is not use that was learnt. Another reason for poor absorption of students heard in the lesson is the pace with which the teacher says, and the degree of perception of the children of his speech.

Most of teachers say about 100 to 200 words per minute. But, what about students perception? Can they understand such huge content of information? With a high concentration pupil can accept only 50 or 100 words per minute, it is just a half part of material.

Moreover if lection is interesting it is impossible to understand this or that program during some time. They distracted, try to think more about heard information or even switch over their attention on other problem, which is not connect with lesson topic. Science experiments claim that teachers should to say only 400, 500 words per minute for better students understanding and not their distraction. It's impossible the man say for four times slower, so students distracted, and sometimesit becomes boring.

Research which is conducted in one of American colleges where is prevail lection form of education show that students were inattentive 40% of the time. Moreover if for the first 10 minutes students can remember 70% of information than during the last 10 minutes they receive only 20% of lection material.

Not surprisingly that the students teaching an introductory lecture course in psychology knew only 8% higher than the control group who did not listen at all rate.  While teaching humanities the greatest effect is the introduction of interactive technologies collectively-group study, as they are, in our opinion, more democratic than other methods, education and democratic tolerance to their colleagues in education is one of the links forming independent civil society.

By the way, modern philosophy connects tolerance with the liquidation of basis intellectual intolerance that repressive subordinates the truth. It is believed that truth exposes all who do not comply it, beyond what is considered normal.

Dictate truth in science and the scientific community allegedly extends to all social relations, these relations in science is a model in which the guidance is based sociality.

Historically, changing nature of tolerance is really due to changes in opinions about tolerance, change it (thought) ontological units. Investigation of mental work is the prerogative of the philosophy; it authorizes the directions of movement of human thought. It means that the direction of philosophy set the context of themes any problems, problems including tolerance.

For this reason, the content side of the educational process involves the purposeful selection of educational material: it must cover the various theories and opinions of scientists, to provide alternative situation in social development, which reflect its diversity.

For example, tolerance in teaching philosophy involves tolerant attitude to representatives of different philosophical directions, need to get rid of the ruling Marxists in research prejudice against all un-Marxist philosophy of the XX century, to identify new approaches to the study neopositivism, existentialism and other philosophical currents.

So, in my opinion, the problem of tolerance is an interdisciplinary and just philosophy makes this problem kind of this. In course of philosophy is important to talk about the validity of tolerance, justice, ethical imperatives, failure of which leads to the discrediting of democratic values.  Tolerance against persons which belong to other nationalities means recognition of belonging to humanity as a whole.

Giving the materials to students for searching the answers to questions about the fate of mankind, a teacher of philosophy should bring students to the realizing the unity of humanity in the face of global challenges to understanding the values ​​of every culture in the family arena. In the process of educating students scientists released such  thing as "multiculturaleducation", which emit standarts such as: tolerance (sophistication,openness, altruism, empathy), intercultural competence (the ability of personality to intercultural communication, achieve mutual understanding in situations of intercultural communication through the application of knowledge ) , critical thinking (sophistication of multicultural awareness) motivation desire to self-identity of human knowledgeacquisition and use them in your own life. 

Checking the existing programs on humanitarian subjects showed that the multicultural component in most current programs and textbooks almost absent, educational potential of studying subjects is not fully used. Special role in forming such features of multicultural upbringing as tolerance, understanding, acceptance and respect for different cultures is learning intercultural communication is the adequate understanding of different cultures. The purpose of teaching intercultural communication is to create competence.

The basis of  intercultural competence is consisting of communicative culture and linguistic knowledge (linguistic and communicative competence).  That is why the humanities, with a total linguistic content line has a priority in teaching intercultural communication, and consequently increasing of multicultural student's upbringing). Processing side of the educational process involves the use of active forms of learning: dialogue, discussions, business games, debates, simulations.  Organizational forms that are based on communication, dialogue, comparison of different points of view, designed to favor the venerable relation to other opinions, understanding the importance of the various approaches, the perception of disagreements within the group as a positive force.

For example, one of the most popular youth  organizations among students are group discussions like "Mike", "Brownian motion", "Jig Saw", "Jig-co." Most scientific and adapted to the conditions of teaching workshops in our Ukrainian universities is a technology of "brainstorming." Let’s stop and concentrate on this topic.

Here you are some main rules of «brainstorming»:

1)        Select the lead in the equal position of all participants (Habitually, I am this leader, as a teacher)

2) The power of imagination. The positive mood.

3) There are only clarifying questions, encourage and support the partners. This is does not apply to the experts.

4) Failure criticisms and intermediate grades in the course of "assault" (for example "agree, but you can on the other").It is possible to add and combine some ideas.

5)Generalized formulation of opinions and ideas. Action by the principle: the more ideas the more determined attack and the closer your goal.

6) The friendly mood and temperament of participants.

7)  Activity of all team members is estimated. Inactive members can give cause to experts to shoot team balls.
8) Optimism and confidence.

And now about let’s speak about stages and methods of "brainstorming":

I. Formulation of educational problem and its study decision.

The definition of the terms and rules of the teamwork. It is indicated that the violation is removed from 2 to 4 points from the group. The formation of working groups with 3-5 persons and the expert group that will have to evaluate and select the best of ideas. All academic group is divided into 4 -5 members. The experts take their places in groups. (The experts are selected from students who thoroughly know the material, it means that they know the problem from the different sides and can argue their position.)

II. Quick warm-up.
Quick answers to the various  problems of the training character, prepared by the teacher. It is mood and checking student’s work at one time: students in groups examine their intellectual potential. 

III. "Storm" of the problem.

Rules are not remained.  The teacher quickly clarifies the problem one more time. It is reminded to respect the rules announced in advance. Generating ideas in groups under the supervision of experts begins from the teacher signal at the same time in all groups (alarm bell cell phone starts and finishes workgroups, so it should be fixed at an appropriate time). Members present their ideas one by one. Experts in their groups fix ideas, the work of each and every, also their compliance with the rules. "Storm" of the problem in groups takes only 10-15 minutes.

IV. Discussion of the results of the expert groups.
V. Selection and evaluation of best ideas.
VI. Communication of the "brainstorming" in the order of tasks or clockwise (discussed previously).

VII. Public defense of the best ideas

In my point of view such form of carrying out some seminars is one of the most effective, because of cannot student non-participation in the collective process of learning academic knowledge.

That is why this method is good example of stimulation to studying; in fact students don’t want to stand out for their ignorance among colleagues. And one of the homework is that students do exercises like "senkan" which is one of the methods of interactive learning and which lets discover their creative deposits

Let’s speak about the essence of this method:

«Senkan» it is a poem which consists of five lines.

First Line must contain a word that denotes the subject (usually a noun).
Second Line is a description of the theme, which consists of a 2-word (two adjectives). Third Line defines the action associated with the subject, it consists of three words (verbs). Fourth line is a phrase that consists of 4 words and expresses the attitude to the subject, feelings about the discussion.
  The last line consists of one word; it expresses the essence of the theme, as if make a conclusion.

Thus, summarizing all said above, I want to draw your attention to the fact that the use of interactive methods in the educational process of higher education, particularly in the studying of humanities, creates conditions for self-identity and helps to achieve a high intellectual development of students. Only skillful design and implementation of the two components of the educational process- the subject-content and procedural are lead to the formation of tolerance as the most important characteristics of the Ukrainian democratic society. The greatest extent it depends on the pedagogical teacherskills of humanitarian subjects, including the display of his personal tolerance in the educational process.