SUB-SECTION 7. Social Rsychology.

Levitskaya I. А.

PhD in Pedagogy,

Сhief of department of social and humanitarian sciences

Kuzbass State Technical University named after

T.F. Gorbachеv, Mezhdurechensk, Russia





Each culture has its own set of non-verbal cues for interpersonal interactions. One person cannot possibly memorize them all, or know how they should be applied in each different incident. Rather, the trick used by competent cross-cultural communicators is to practice their own awareness of all non-verbal cues.  Non-verbal communication includes a huge variety of largely unconscious patterns, such as facial expressions and other body language, volume of speaking, touch and physical proximity, eye contact, and silence. All of these vary according to culture, and everyone has learned to use these patterns in one, automatic, culturally approved way. The non-verbal communication of people from other cultures is either received and interpreted within one's own cultural framework, or not received at all.

Most people consider the meaning of “cultural identity” when they often associate the term with specific and identifiable qualities that are shared by members within groups. These qualities, which serve to differentiate members within the culturally cohesive group from those outside of it, may include a common history or heritage, a unique set of language paradigms, similar physical attributes, and/or collective traditions, customs, and beliefs [1].

Human communication across cultures poses many challenges, especially if there is a lack of tolerance for anyone that looks, speaks, believes, or acts differently. Working in the global commercial environment, in a constantly changing world of interdependent economies, fewer natural resources, multicultural and multinational organizations, and threats to global security, it is necessary to collaborate interaction between divergent cultures and groups.

So, cross cultural communication is a necessity for a continued survival of the human beings. In order to communicate and cooperate successfully with others on a global scale, even with those who do not share a common cultural treasures or common world view, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the distinctions in communicating across cultures.

Aspects of differentiation can be as basic as ethnicity or race, or as complex as politics and religion. Commonalities might be as transient as a particular style of dress, or preferences in music and art. No matter the classifications a group may use to identify its members, and regardless of any difficulty people may have in relating to others outside their group, culture is a pervasive component of human interaction and socialization. Understanding some of the distinctions of cultural communication can improve relations within common cultures and outside them as well [4].

Communication within a common culture, or intercultural communication, covers communication between people who share a commonality of experience, knowledge, and values. Intercultural relations are founded on such factors as shared heritage, gender association, religious affiliation, class distinction, and the like. People in this group may see the world in highly similar ways and may share a common value system. Within the confines of a shared, general culture, communication has the greatest probability for success, if success is defined as a message being understood in the manner in which it was intended [3].

Transmitting a message to an individual, or to group, that does not share a common ancestry, language, or tradition with the deliverer of the message, usually makes successful communication more difficult to achieve. But, if the communicator understands and appreciates the fact that the audience, or recipient of the communication, may have a different value system and a different socio-historical perspective, there is a greater opportunity for success. Intercultural business writing falls into the same general categories as other forms of business writing. How you handle these categories depends on the subject and purpose of your message, the relationship between you and the reader, and the customs of the person to whom the message is addressed. Letters are the most common form of intercultural business correspondence. They serve the same purposes and follow the same basic organizational plans (direct and indirect) as letters you would send within your own country. Unless you are personally fluent in the language of the intended readers, you should ordinarily write your letters in English or have them translated by a profes­sional translator. If you and the reader speak different languages, be especially concerned with achieving clarity [2].

The first step to develop intercultural communication skills is to learn as much as possible - the language, cultural background and history, social rules, and so on - about the specific culture that you expect to deal with. The other is to develop general skills that will help to adapt in any culture. The trick is to learn useful gen­eral information but to be open to variations and individual differences. The second step to cultural learning, general development of intercul­tural skills, is especially useful if we interact with people from a variety of cultures or subcultures.

Communication across cultures can be facilitated through knowledge and respect for diversity. International businesses are increasingly aware of this fact and assist their employees with learning, adopting, and adapting to cultural norms when doing business in other countries [5].

An example of this is an understanding what behaviors are acceptable, and which are unacceptable, during a business dinner, or a visit to a client’s home. Some cultures indulge in non-verbal communication to indicate levels of respect and compliance (bowing, using hand gestures, leaving food on the plate, for instance), whereas other cultures rely on strictly verbal cues (tone of voice, or specific word choices). Knowing and utilizing the precise social rules for engagement in a foreign country can only lead to better cross cultural communication.

At no other time in human history have divergent cultures interacted as much as they do today. Humans interact in a world that is essentially instantaneous thanks to technical innovations in communication and the ease with which people now migrate across the globe to study, work, play and live within different cultures.

So, the most important is to cultivate awareness of ones own cultural values, norms and reflexes. Each of the world’s cultures has evolved within its own environment to serve its people in their interactions with each other and with outsiders. No one culture is superior in values or utility, nonetheless, culture shapes outlook in a variety of subtle ways.



  1. Anderson, P. A., Hecht, M. L., Hoobler, G. D., & Smallwood, M. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Cross-cultural and intercultural communication, 73–90. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2003.
  2. Gudykunst, W. B. Intercultural communication: Introduction. In W.B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Cross-cultural and intercultural communication, 163–166. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2003.
  3. Martin, J. N., Nakayama, T. K. Intercultural communication in contexts, 4th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill. 2007.
  4. Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E. Communication between cultures, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press. 2004.
  5. Ting-Toomey, S. Communicating across cultures, 248-250. New York: Guilford Press. 1999.